The railings in China are called dry, also called hooks, and are safety facilities on bridges and buildings. The railing plays a role of separation and guidance in use, so that the boundary of the divided area is clear and clear, and the designed railing is very decorative. There are railing-like components on the ceremonial seat of the Zhou Dynasty. In the Han Dynasty, the most inclined railings were used. The six dynasties prevailed in the hook piece. The railing corners of the standing pillars or the wrestling creators are all found in Yungang Grottoes and Dunhuang murals. The wooden railings of the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties are relatively slender, and the stone railings gradually deviate from the shape of the wooden railings and tend to be heavy. After the end of the Qing Dynasty, Western classical proportions, scales and decorative railings entered China. The materials and shapes of modern railings are more diverse.
Formally, railings can be divided into inter-section and continuous. The former consists of a column, an armrest and a crosspiece. The handrail is supported on the column; the latter has a continuous armrest composed of an armrest, a railing and a base. Common types are: wooden railings, stone railings, stainless steel railings, cast iron railings, cast stone railings, cement railings, modular railings.
Generally, the low column height is 0.2 to 0.3 meters, the middle column is 0.8 to 0.9 meters, and the high column is 1.1 to 1.3 meters. The inter-moment of the balusters is generally 0.5 to 2 meters.
There are two types of leaks and entities. Leaky is composed of poles and handrails, and some are provided with crosspieces or floral ornaments. The entity is made up of fences and handrails, and there are also partial leaks. The railing can also be made into a bench or a backrest. The design of the railing should be considered safe, suitable, beautiful, space-saving and convenient for construction.
The materials used to construct the railings are wood, stone, concrete, brick, tile, bamboo, metal, plexiglass and plastic. The height of the railing mainly depends on the object and place of use, generally 900 mm high; the kindergarten and primary school stair railings can also be built in the form of double-track handrails for adults and children respectively; in high-risk areas, they can be raised as appropriate. When the width of the stairs exceeds 1.4 meters, double-sided railings shall be provided (the wall-side handrails shall be placed on one side of the wall). When the width is more than 2.4 meters, a railing handrail shall be added in the middle. In residential buildings, railings should not have large gaps or crossbars that can be climbed.